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dc.contributor.authorVerocai, Guilherme G.
dc.contributor.authorHoberg, Eric P.
dc.contributor.authorVikøren, Turid
dc.contributor.authorHandeland, Kjell
dc.contributor.authorYtrehus, Bjørnar
dc.contributor.authorRezansoff, Andrew M.
dc.contributor.authorDavidson, Rebecca K.
dc.contributor.authorGilleard, John S.
dc.contributor.authorKutz, Susan J.
dc.coverage.spatialVestby, Norwayen_US
dc.identifier.citationParasites & Vectors 2014, 7en_US
dc.description.abstractVarestrongylus alces, a lungworm in Eurasian moose from Europe has been considered a junior synonym of Varestrongylus capreoli, in European roe deer, due to a poorly detailed morphological description and the absence of a type-series. Methods Specimens used in the redescription were collected from lesions in the lungs of Eurasian moose, from Vestby, Norway. Specimens were described based on comparative morphology and integrated approaches. Molecular identification was based on PCR, cloning and sequencing of the ITS-2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analysis compared V. alces ITS-2 sequences to these of other Varestrongylus species and other protostrongylids. Results Varestrongylus alces is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian moose from Europe. Varestrongylus alces causes firm nodular lesions that are clearly differentiated from the adjacent lung tissue. Histologically, lesions are restricted to the parenchyma with adult, egg and larval parasites surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages, eosinophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes. The species is valid and distinct from others referred to Varestrongylus, and should be separated from V. capreoli. Morphologically, V. alces can be distinguished from other species by characters in the males that include a distally bifurcated gubernaculum, arched denticulate crura, spicules that are equal in length and relatively short, and a dorsal ray that is elongate and bifurcated. Females have a well-developed provagina, and are very similar to those of V. capreoli. Morphometrics of first-stage larvae largely overlap with those of other Varestrongylus. Sequences of the ITS-2 region strongly support mutual independence of V. alces, V. cf. capreoli, and the yet undescribed species of Varestrongylus from North American ungulates. These three taxa form a well-supported crown-clade as the putative sister of V. alpenae. The association of V. alces and Alces or its ancestors is discussed in light of host and parasite phylogeny and host historical biogeography. Varestrongylus alces is a valid species, and should be considered distinct from V. capreoli. Phylogenetic relationships among Varestrongylus spp. from Eurasia and North America are complex and consistent with faunal assembly involving recurrent events of geographic expansion, host switching and subsequent speciation. Cervidae, Cryptic species, Historical biogeography, ITS-2, Metastrongyloidea, Parasite biodiversity, Varestrongylinae, Varestrongylus capreoli, Verminous pneumoniaen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectCryptic speciesen_US
dc.subjectHistorical biogeographyen_US
dc.subjectParasite biodiversityen_US
dc.subjectVarestrongylus capreolien_US
dc.subjectVerminous pneumoniaen_US
dc.titleResurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of the Eurasian moose (Alces alces), with report on associated pathologyen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holder© 2014 The Authorsen_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Landbruks- og Fiskerifag: 900::Klinisk veterinærmedisinske fag: 950en_US
dc.source.journalParasites & Vectorsen_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal