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dc.contributor.authorOliveira, Teresa
dc.contributor.authorSanchez, David Carricondo
dc.contributor.authorMattisson, Jenny
dc.contributor.authorVogt, Kristina
dc.contributor.authorCorradini, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorLinnell, John Durrus
dc.contributor.authorOdden, John
dc.contributor.authorHeurich, Marco Dietmar
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez-Recio, Mariano
dc.contributor.authorKrofel, Miha
dc.description.abstractKill rates are a central parameter to assess the impact of predation on prey species. An accurate estimation of kill rates requires a correct identification of kill sites, often achieved by field-checking GPS location clusters (GLCs). However, there are potential sources of error included in kill-site identification, such as failing to detect GLCs that are kill sites, and misclassifying the generated GLCs (e.g., kill for nonkill) that were not field checked. Here, we address these two sources of error using a large GPS dataset of collared Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), an apex predator of conservation concern in Europe, in three multiprey systems, with different combinations of wild, semidomestic, and domestic prey. We first used a subsampling approach to investigate how different GPS-fix schedules affected the detection of GLC-indicated kill sites. Then, we evaluated the potential of the random forest algorithm to classify GLCs as nonkills, small prey kills, and ungulate kills. We show that the number of fixes can be reduced from seven to three fixes per night without missing more than 5% of the ungulate kills, in a system composed of wild prey. Reducing the number of fixes per 24 h decreased the probability of detecting GLCs connected with kill sites, particularly those of semidomestic or domestic prey, and small prey. Random forest successfully predicted between 73%–90% of ungulate kills, but failed to classify most small prey in all systems, with sensitivity (true positive rate) lower than 65%. Additionally, removing domestic prey improved the algorithm's overall accuracy. We provide a set of recommendations for studies focusing on kill-site detection that can be considered for other large carnivore species in addition to the Eurasian lynx. We recommend caution when working in systems including domestic prey, as the odds of underestimating kill rates are higher.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectdomestic preyen_US
dc.subjectEurasian lynxen_US
dc.subjectGPS location clusters (GLCs)en_US
dc.subjectGPS-fix scheduleen_US
dc.subjectkill sitesen_US
dc.subjectmultiprey systemen_US
dc.subjectrandom foresten_US
dc.titlePredicting kill sites of an apex predator from GPS data in different multi-prey systemsen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holder© 2022 The Authorsen_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og Naturvitenskap: 400::Zoologiske og botaniske fag: 480en_US
dc.source.journalEcological Applicationsen_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 251112en_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 281092en_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 160022/F40en_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Innlandeten_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Vikenen_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Vestfold & Telemarken_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Trøndelagen_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Nordlanden_US
dc.relation.projectNature Protection Division of the County Governor’s Office for Troms & Finnmarken_US
dc.relation.projectSlovenian Research Agency: Grant/Award Numbers: N1-0163, P4-0059en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Charity foundation from Liechtensteinen_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Fundaç˜ao para a Ciência e a Tecnologiaen_US
dc.relation.projectndre: Hunting inspectorate of the Canton of Bernen_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Stotzer-Kästli-Stiftung, Zigerli- Hegi-Stiftung, Haldimann-Stiftung, Zürcher Tierschutz, Temperatio-Stiftung, Karl Mayer Stiftung, Stiftung Ormellaen_US

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