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dc.contributor.authorLindén, Elin
dc.contributor.authorte Beest, Mariska
dc.contributor.authorAubreu, Ilka
dc.contributor.authorMoritz, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorSundqvist, Maja K.
dc.contributor.authorBarrio, Isabel C.
dc.contributor.authorBoike, Julia
dc.contributor.authorBryant, John P.
dc.contributor.authorBråthen, Kari Anne
dc.contributor.authorBuchwal, Agata
dc.contributor.authorBueno, C. Guillermo
dc.contributor.authorCurrier, Alain
dc.contributor.authorEgelkraut, Dagmar Dorothea
dc.contributor.authorForbes, Bruce C.
dc.contributor.authorHallinger, Martin
dc.contributor.authorHeijmans, Monique
dc.contributor.authorHermanutz, Luise
dc.contributor.authorHik, David S.
dc.contributor.authorHofgaard, Annika
dc.contributor.authorHolmgren, Milena
dc.contributor.authorHuebner, Diane C.
dc.contributor.authorHøye, Toke T.
dc.contributor.authorJónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.
dc.contributor.authorKaarlejärvi, Elina
dc.contributor.authorKissler, Emilie
dc.contributor.authorKumpula, Timo
dc.contributor.authorLimpens, Juul
dc.contributor.authorMyers-Smith, Isla H.
dc.contributor.authorNormand, Signe
dc.contributor.authorPost, Eric
dc.contributor.authorRocha, Adrian V.
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Niels Martin
dc.contributor.authorSkarin, Anna
dc.contributor.authorSoininen, Eeva M
dc.contributor.authorSokolov, Aleksandr
dc.contributor.authorSokolova, Natalia
dc.contributor.authorSpeed, James David Mervyn
dc.contributor.authorStreet, Lorna E.
dc.contributor.authorTananaev, Nikita
dc.contributor.authorTremblay, Jean-Pierre
dc.contributor.authorUrbanowicz, Christine
dc.contributor.authorWatts, David A.
dc.contributor.authorZimmermann, Heike H.
dc.contributor.authorOlofsson, Johan
dc.description.abstractSpatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top–down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic chemical defence and leaf digestibility in resinous (Betula glandulosa, B. nana ssp. exilis) and non-resinous (B. nana ssp. nana, B. pumila) shrub birches to see how they vary among and within taxa and functional groups. Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabolomic analyses and in vitro leaf digestibility via incubation in cattle rumen fluid, we analysed defence composition and leaf digestibility in 128 samples from 44 tundra locations. We found biogeographical patterns in anti-herbivore defence where mean leaf triterpene concentrations and twig resin gland density were greater in resinous taxa and mean concentrations of condensing tannins were greater in non-resinous taxa. This indicates a biome-wide trade-off between triterpene- or tannin-dominated defences. However, we also found variations in chemical defence composition and resin gland density both within and among functional groups (resinous/non-resinous) and taxa, suggesting these categorisations only partly predict chemical herbivore defence. Complex tannins were the only defence compounds negatively related to in vitro digestibility, identifying this previously neglected tannin group as having a potential key role in birch anti-herbivore defence. We conclude that circum-Arctic variation in birch anti-herbivore defence can be partly derived from biogeographical distributions of birch taxa, although our detailed mapping of plant defence provides more information on this variation and can be used for better predictions of herbivore effects on Arctic vegetation.rotected area networks help species respond to climate warming. However, the contribution of a site’s environmental and conservation-relevant characteristics to these responsesis not well understood. We investigated how composition of nonbreeding waterbird communities (97 species) in the European Union Natura 2000 (N2K) network (3018 sites)changed in response to increases in temperature over 25 years in 26 European countries.We measured community reshuffling based on abundance time series collected under theInternational Waterbird Census relative to N2K sites’ conservation targets, funding, designation period, and management plan status. Waterbird community composition in sitesexplicitly designated to protect them and with management plans changed more quickly inresponse to climate warming than in other N2K sites. Temporal community changes werenot affected by the designation period despite greater exposure to temperature increaseinside late-designated N2K sites. Sites funded under the LIFE program had lower climate-driven community changes than sites that did not received LIFE funding. Our findingsimply that efficient conservation policy that helps waterbird communities respond to cli-mate warming is associated with sites specifically managed for waterbirds. climate adaptation, colonization, conservation policy, distribution change, EU Birds Directive, LIFE program,wetland. Arctic, Betula, birch, herbivory, metabolomics, plant chemical defence, shrubs, tundraen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectclimate adaptationen_US
dc.subjectconservation policyen_US
dc.subjectdistribution changeen_US
dc.subjectEU Birds Directiveen_US
dc.subjectLIFE programen_US
dc.subjectplant chemical defenceen_US
dc.titleCircum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds suggests biome-wide trade-off in defence strategies in Arctic shrubsen_US
dc.title.alternativeCircum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds suggests biome-wide trade-off in defence strategies in Arctic shrubsen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2022 The Authorsen_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Zoologiske og botaniske fag: 480en_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Zoology and botany: 480en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grantno. KAW2014.0279)en_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 262064en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Swedish Research Council (grant no. 2017-04515)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: UK NERC (grant no. NE/M016323/1)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Estonian Ministry of Education & Research grant no.PRG1065en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Carlsberg Foundation (grant no. CF14-0992)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Swedish Metabolomics Centreen_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: US National Science Foundation (grant no. 1556772)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Finnish Cultural Foundationen_US
dc.relation.projectEU/(Centre of Excellence: EcolChange)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: Nunatsiavut Government and Parks Canada NSERC-ArcticNet Canen_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: FORMAS (grant no. 2015-01091)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: US National Science Foundation (grant no. 1107381)en_US
dc.relation.projectAndre: UK NERC (grant no. NE/K000284/2)en_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal