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dc.contributor.authorWielgolaski, Frans Emil
dc.contributor.authorHofgaard, Annika
dc.contributor.authorHoltmeier, Friedrich-Karl
dc.coverage.spatialEuropa, Europenb_NO
dc.identifier.citationClimate Research (CR). 2017, 73 151-166.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractTransition zones between mountain forests and treeless tundra, i.e. treeline ecotones, are characterized by great regional variety. In this paper, we discuss the biodiversity in various trophic levels in treeline ecotones throughout Europe, with particular focus on recent changes in land use and climate in northern and central mountains. In northernmost Europe, mountain birch prevails, while conifers (spruce, pine, larch) are the dominating species further south. While at continent-wide to global scales, the ecotone position is largely controlled by heat deficiency, it depends on a multitude of partly interacting abiotic and biotic factors other than climate at smaller scales. Climate change is a driving factor in treeline ecotone change, including physiognomic structure and biodiversity, although the effects of climate and other factors often overlap. Historical legacy plays an important role in this respect, and human impacts are particularly important. The recent decline in pastoral use of many European treeline areas often strongly influences plant diversity and re-growth of trees and other woody species. Climate change together with changing tree cover may influence snow cover, moisture regime, and nutrient conditions. Subsequently changed site conditions influence plant−plant interactions, favoring some species and disfavoring others, and plant−animal interactions. Native animals may cause widespread or local disturbances in treeline ecotone areas. Mass outbreaks of leaf-eating insects, for example, usually affect comparatively large forested areas whereas mammalian herbivores and birds have more local impact. However, high numbers of wild or domestic mammalian herbivores may challenge the carrying capacity of treeline ecotone areas at the same time as they preserve an open pasture character. This calls for cross-disciplinary study approaches, addressing the complexity of the ecotone regarding both causal background and biogeographic diversity.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectTreeline ecotonenb_NO
dc.subjectecotone changenb_NO
dc.subjectland use changenb_NO
dc.subjectclimate changenb_NO
dc.subjectanimal impactnb_NO
dc.titleSensitivity to environmental change of the treeline ecotone and its associated biodiversity in European mountainsnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og Naturvitenskap: 400::Zoologiske og botaniske fag: 480nb_NO
dc.source.journalClimate Research (CR)nb_NO
dc.relation.projectAndre: German Research Foundationnb_NO
dc.relation.projectAndre: Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere Facility (LAPBIAT, EU)nb_NO
dc.relation.projectAndre: COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)nb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 160022nb_NO
dc.relation.projectAndre: CLIMFOR project (grant code EEA-jrp-ro-no-2013-1-0204)nb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 244557nb_NO
cristin.unitnameAvdeling for terrestrisk økologi

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal